The term instrument generally refers
to sound-producing devices used by a ho`opa`a. The following are some of the most important:
Tall drums, played by striking the drumhead with one or two hands.
KILU or PUNIU:
Small drum, sometimes made from the shell of a large coconut. The kilu can either rest on the ground or be tied to the performer's thigh.
Beater, usually manufactured from sennit, banana bark, or ti leaf, and used to strike the head of the KILU.
PAHUPAHU or KA`EKE`EKE:
Bamboo pipes of varying lengths,
usually with one end open. The player strikes the closed end on the
ground or a mat to produce tones. Pitch varies with the size of the
Gourds, hollowed out and used as percussion instruments.
Generally the large IPU HEKE are played by ho`opa`a, the smaller IPU
`OHE HANO IHU or HANO:
Bamboo flutes played by blowing
from the nose. Hawaiians considered their sound very seductive, so the
`ohe hano ihu often figure in love stories.
Shell or other trumpets, usually blown to demand attention.
Whistle, traditionally made from a kamani seed or
coconut shell. These would have one or more holes cut in them to
produce sound, and be attached to a long cord. When a performer
twirled the cord, air rushing through the holes would produce sound.
Small gourd whistles, somewhat like ocarinas
Shells of the freshwater snail Nerita granosa used as
Dancers employ implements to create sounds. Usually they
will select implements in some way appropriate to the dance they are
performing. For example, because Pele creates stones, `ili`ili often
accompany dances in her honor. Dances about water may employ ipu,
which Hawaiians once used as containers. Some of the traditional hula implements are:
Gourds filled with small shells, seeds, or pebbles.
`Uli`uli have a handle attached to one end, and this handle usually is
attached to a counterweight which may be covered with kapa, feathers,
or both. Generally, but not always, people performing hula in the ancient
manner will use a single `uli`uli decorated with natural feathers and tapa, or
with an unadorned handle. Brightly dyed feathers usually cover the heads of
`uli`uli used in modern style dances, and dancers will commonly perform with
two of these implements.
Nodes of bamboo split lengthwise into many strips which
run most of the node's length. The dancer holds the uncut portion in one
hand, striking it against either the free hand or another pu`ili. In many, but
not all cases, ancient dances use one pu`ili, and modern ones two.
Pebbles. Dancers will usually hold two of these in each
hand and strike them against each other like castanets.
Hardwood sticks of various lengths, struck together
to produce sounds.
Treadle; a flat board on which a dancer would place
one foot. By moving her/his foot up and down, s/he would create a base
beat. Papa hehi were used to accompany certain hula kala`au.
An excellent source on how to make your own Hawaiian musical instrument is the book called "HOW TO MAKE YOUR OWN HAWAIIAN MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS" by Jerry Hopkins, ISBN: 0-935848-66-5